Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria and Tunisia have all fallen at the group stage.
Japan lost to Poland 1-0 in its final match of the group stage, but thanks to Colombia's 1-0 win over Senegal and an uncommon World Cup tiebreaker rule, the Blue Samurai are through to the round of 16 as Group H's runner-up over the African nation.
"It's up to us to make them proud, to fly the flag for Senegal and Africa at this World Cup", said Koulibaly, 27.
Coming into this afternoon's games sitting atop Group H, anything other than a defeat to Poland would have guaranteed Japan their place in the next round.
Japan lost their final game of the tournament to already-eliminated Poland, although a late victor for Colombia over Senegal ensured the Asian nation progressed on the basis that they had picked up fewer yellow cards than Senegal over the course of the tournament. They're all going to support us.
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Japan will play the winners of Group G - either England or Belgium, who were to play later Thursday - in the next round. Colombia topped the group with six points.
Senegal are appearing at the World Cup for only the second time, having reached the quarter-finals on their debut in 2002.
Senegal needed a draw to advance to the last 16.
"I think it should be more of a positive thing rather than pressure", Koulibaly added in reference to being the last African side.
Poland showed an equal lack of effort to attack because they wanted the three points which ensure their 2018 World Cup campaign hasn't been a complete disaster.